How to Cure Acne Blemish with Laser Treatment

Find out how Acne Blemish Laser Treatment can be your most cost effective solution to banish acne blemish over using lotions and pills

Acne blemish laser treatment usually includes minimal amounts of laser exposure treatment. Consultants in Acne Blemish Laser treatment often use laser using carbon dioxide to banish acne and the devastating effects of acne.

Acne blemish laser treatment methods are painless and very effective and can be,Guest Posting if researched well, found to be more affordable than first thought. Most people affected by Acne Blemish find laser treatment the only way forward to banish the acne suffered as its success rate can be incredible.

Acne Blemish laser treatment costs can vary between different companies and can range from a simple one session for a very affordable price. Most Acne Blemish treatment sessions can be completed in less than twenty minutes and patients are usually discharged the same day as treatment.

Acne Blemish Laser Treatment has been found to be more cost effective in the long run over expensive acne treatments such as lotions and pills. This is based on the requirement by many pill and lotion treatment to be used over prolonged periods of time to become effective which becomes very expensive.

Acne Blemish Laser treatment equipment works by using a laser beam that centers on the acne affected areas. The laser produces a pulsating heat exposure just below the skin’s surface and reduces the size of the sebaceous glands which are the primary cause of acne blemish. Acne blemish laser treatment also requires the use of specialist creams during treatment which numb the acne blemish area; this makes the acne laser treatment almost painless.

Some minor side effects of acne blemish laser treatment can include some small skin hardening and some minor discoloration. Swelling of the acne treatment areas have been known but are uncommon these days. After the acne blemish laser treatment, the skin sometimes can appear slightly red as the new collagen is formed. This redness of the skin will fade after about one week with the entire color gone in less than two months.

The biggest problems faced today by acne blemish sufferers are which treatment they should use to combat acne. With treatment widely available for acne, the biggest question faced is do you use creams and ointments which can be individually cheap but on continuing usage expensive, or do you pay a relatively higher one off payment and possibly eradicate acne through acne blemish laser treatment for life.

If you are faced with this decision in your life, information on both treatments are very important so you can choose what treatment is best for you in your personal circumstances.

To help you we have listed a new website here which offers free helpful information on how to treat acne blemish using either laser treatment or lotions, find the new website by clicking the link provided below!

Acne blemish laser treatment usually includes minimal amounts of laser exposure treatment. Consultants in Acne Blemish Laser treatment often use laser using carbon dioxide to banish acne and the devastating effects of acne.

Acne blemish laser treatment methods are painless and very effective and can be, if researched well, found to be more affordable than first thought. Most people affected by Acne Blemish find laser treatment the only way forward to banish the acne suffered as its success rate can be incredible.

Acne Blemish laser treatment costs can vary between different companies and can range from a simple one session for a very affordable price. Most Acne Blemish treatment sessions can be completed in less than twenty minutes and patients are usually discharged the same day as treatment.

Acne Blemish Laser Treatment has been found to be more cost effective in the long run over expensive acne treatments such as lotions and pills. This is based on the requirement by many pill and lotion treatment to be used over prolonged periods of time to become effective which becomes very expensive.

Acne Blemish Laser treatment equipment works by using a laser beam that centers on the acne affected areas. The laser produces a pulsating heat exposure just below the skin’s surface and reduces the size of the sebaceous glands which are the primary cause of acne blemish. Acne blemish laser treatment also requires the use of specialist creams during treatment which numb the acne blemish area; this makes the acne laser treatment almost painless.

Some minor side effects of acne blemish laser treatment can include some small skin hardening and some minor discoloration. Swelling of the acne treatment areas have been known but are uncommon these days. After the acne blemish laser treatment, the skin sometimes can appear slightly red as the new collagen is formed. This redness of the skin will fade after about one week with the entire color gone in less than two months.

The biggest problems faced today by acne blemish sufferers are which treatment they should use to combat acne. With treatment widely available for acne, the biggest question faced is do you use creams and ointments which can be individually cheap but on continuing usage expensive, or do you pay a relatively higher one off payment and possibly eradicate acne through acne blemish laser treatment for life.

If you are faced with this decision in your life, information on both treatments are very important so you can choose what treatment is best for you in your personal circumstances.

To help you we have listed a new website here which offers free helpful

Exploring the world of natural alkaloids, it's crucial to understand the compounds that offer unique effects and benefits. Among these, a notable compound draws attention for its potential in wellness and research. Discover the Science Behind 7-Hydroxymitragynine This alkaloid, found in certain plants, is gaining interest for its properties and how it interacts with the body. Understanding its mechanisms and effects can open new avenues for natural health solutions. This setup provides a smooth transition in

A look into alternative investments

Explore alternative investments such as commodities, hedge funds, mutual funds with alternative strategies, and futures to round off your portfolio.

Your investment portfolio will typically include conventional investments such as stocks and bonds both equally important parts of a solid,Guest Posting long-term investment strategy. But, there are many other less-typical investments that can supplement your portfolio and provide you with opportunities to reduce some of the effects of market fluctuations. Consider alternative investments such as commodities, hedge funds, mutual funds with alternative strategies, and futures to round off your portfolio.

What are alternative investments?
Alternative investments are asset classes that generally don’t move together with traditional equity and fixed income markets. They usually follow their own cycles. As a result, alternative asset classes have a low correlation with standard asset classes; therefore they may help diversify your portfolio by reducing the overall volatility of the portfolio when traditional asset classes such as stocks and bonds are performing poorly.

Historically, alternative investments have been restricted to high-net worth individuals and institutional investors, but these days they are far more available to a wider audience. Alternative investments range from real estate to hedge funds to commodities and can complement a variety of investing strategies. However, they are designed to complement a well-founded portfolio rather than to serve as the focal point of the portfolio.

Most people are attracted to alternative investment because they may yield a higher return than traditional investments, but note that potentially higher returns also may carry higher risks with them. What’s important to note is that alternative investments may be more illiquid than their conventional counterparts – they cannot be sold readily like stocks and bonds – and some may need to be held for a longer time horizon. Additionally, there may be unique fees or tax consequences.

Alternative investment options for your portfolio
There are many investment products available today and it sometimes may be difficult to clearly identify which investments are conventional or alternative. But below are is a list of common alternative investments along with their potential benefits and risks.

Gold
Including a small portion of your portfolio toward precious metals such as gold or silver may offset the performance of other assets in the portfolio such as stocks and bonds, because precious metals typically don’t move in tandem with conventional investments.

Gold is typically viewed as a hedge against inflation and currency fluctuations. So when inflation effects the purchasing power of a currency – say the dollar weakens against the euro – gold prices tend to rise. As a result, investors place their money in gold during economic and market downturns.

Investing in gold can be accomplished in several ways, including futures funds, exchange-traded funds, mutual funds, bars, and coins. Nevertheless, since precious metals make up a small sector, prices often change dramatically. This type of volatility can create opportunities for investors in the form of high returns but it can equally result in dramatic losses.

Hedge fund offerings
Hedge funds have historically been available only to high-net-worth individuals and institutions. Hedge funds are investment pools that manage money for institutions like banks, insurance companies, as well as individuals who meet the federal definition of a “qualified purchaser” in terms of net worth and income.

Hedge funds are typically organized as limited partnerships where the fund managers are the general partners and the investors are the limited partners. Hedge fund investments tend to have limited liquidity on a scheduled basis as a result these alternative investments are subject to special regulatory requirements different from mutual funds.

Funds of hedge funds invest in a variety of hedge funds with many different strategies and asset classes with the purpose of reducing overall fund risk through increased diversification. Fund of hedge funds are available to investors that meet the accredited net worth standards of at least $1 million. Fees of hedge funds are higher because of the type of portfolio management and increased trading costs.

Fund of hedge funds are registered with the SEC under the Investment Company Act of 1940 and as securities under the Securities Act of 1933. They may also come in the form of a private offering which will need to adhere to stricter accredited investor standards. Fund of hedge funds can be complicated investment vehicles which often use leverage, lack transparency, may be subject to restrictions, and may include other speculative practices.

Mutual funds with alternative strategies
Mutual funds are offered in many asset categories, including real estate and commodities. Some mutual funds can mimic hedge fund strategies and may be a good option if you’re interested in alternative investments but don’t meet the accredited investor standards.

In contrast to hedge funds and fund of hedge funds with their higher fees and possible restricted liquidity, these types of mutual funds are relatively low cost and are very liquid – they can easily be bought or sold in a public market. As a result they are accessible to a wider range of investors and therefore mutual funds with alternative strategies are prohibited by law in using high leveraging to boost yields as is common with many hedge funds.

Nevertheless, alternative mutual funds do use aspects of hedge fund investing such as employing both long- and short- investment tactics, trading complex derivative products, and short selling. If you are an investor that is looking to help offset market swings or specific sector swings and you understand the risks that may be involved investing in alternative investments, alternative mutual funds may be something to consider adding to your portfolio.

Managed futures funds
Managed futures funds are formed for the purpose of investing assets in the investment vehicles and trading strategies deemed appropriate by commodity trading advisors (CTAs). These specialized money managers use futures, forwards, options contracts and other derivate products traded in U.S. and global markets as their investment vehicles. CTAs are required to be licensed and are subject to the regulations of the National Futures Association and the Commodities Trading Futures Commission (CFTC).

Managed futures are speculative in nature, involving high risks, may carry higher fees, and have limited liquidity. Nevertheless, managed futures investments have been popular investments for high-net-worth individuals and institutional investors for the past several decades. Their appeal comes from their ability to provide investors with greater portfolio diversity by increasing exposure to global investment opportunities and other sectors such as commodities.

There are several categories of managed futures in terms of structure and investment objectives. They may be available to investors in the form of a private offering subject to higher accredited investor standards according Regulation D guidelines of the Securities Act of 1933.

Real estate investment trusts
A popular type of alternative investment is commercial real estate. Until recently commercial real estate has been mostly inaccessible to retail investors and was widely enjoyed by high-net-worth individuals and institutional investors for its potentially higher yields and diversification attributes. Since the inception of real estate investment trusts (REITs), investing in commercial real estate has become available to wider range of investors.

REITs pool money from investors and invest the funds in properties ranging from office buildings to apartment complexes to hospitals and warehouses. REITs are offered to investors in two forms: traded and non-traded. Both offer exposure to commercial real estate assets.

Publicly traded REITs can be easily bought and sold on a daily basis on active secondary market. However, they tend to be more volatile.

Non-traded REITs are illiquid investments appropriate for investors with a long-term investment time horizon of at least 5 to 10 years. Non-traded REITs are not aligned with stock and bond market movements so they add great diversification to a portfolio.

Other alternatives
Alternative investment can also include assets such as art, gems, rare collectibles, and antiques. In addition, venture-capital funds are considered alternative investments. These alternative investments can help provide investors with added diversification and can help balance out performance across various market swings.

Considering alternative investments
Alternative investments can potentially boost your portfolios returns while helping you reduce market exposure and overall portfolio volatility. However, because of a lack of a secondary market for some alternative investments and restricted liquidity for others, as well as the higher risks associated with them, alternative investments should be used as complements to traditional portfolios consisting of equities and fixed-income instruments.

Moreover, because alternative investments often require more professional management than conventional investments, it’s important to look to experienced money managers for help such as your Isakov Planning Group Financial Advisor. Make sure to explore the types of alternative investments that may be suitable to you and that are available through Isakov Planning Group.

Alternative investments include gold, real estate, hedge funds, funds of hedge funds, commodities along with others and are generally used to round off your portfolio’s performance because alternative investments are typically not correlated to traditional markets such as equities and fixed income.

Alternative investments are often illiquid, with longer investment time horizons and carry higher risks, and often require professional money managers.

Investors must meet a criteria outlined by the law, ranging from product to product, in order to take advantage of alternative investment opportunities.

Alternative investments should generally be used to complement existing portfolios and strategies consisting of mainly stocks and fixed-income products. Ta

Social Values and the Health System

The health system should reflect social and cultural values.

There are as many health systems and models as there are countries. This is because healthcare is a public good and,Guest Posting thus, reflects the social and cultural values of the societies that design and adopt them.

I. Social and Cultural Values

We should distinguish social and cultural values from economic and operational values. Efficiency, for instance, is an economic-operational value, not a social-cultural one. Equity (though often considered an economic criterion) is actually a normative social-cultural value whose pursuit often comes at a steep economic price and is non-efficient. Health systems can be categorized according to which class of values they emphasize: the American (US) health system is geared to satisfy economic-operational requirements while European health systems place a premium on social-cultural ones.

In this paper, I deal with three social-cultural constraints: solidarity, equity (vs. inequity), and progressivity (vs. regressivity), including the issue of redistribution. There are many other social-cultural values that I do not cover in here: fairness, dignity, and choice come to mind. Finally, I provide a discussion of the concept of “public good” in current literature.

II. Social Solidarity

Social solidarity is both vertical and horizontal and both contemporaneous and inter-generational.

Members of the same society ought to strive to share the burdens of the sick, the young, the poor, the weak, and the disenfranchised. This is usually done by transferring economic resources among population groups and by promoting fairness. At the same time, people should feel morally obliged to provide aid and succor to their peers and relatives, neighbors and colleagues, compatriots and friends by encouraging social cohesion and sharing of responsibilities (for instance, within the nuclear or extended family).

Such attitudes cut also across generations, so that the current generation is held answerable to future generations for their well-being and the reasonable fulfillment of their needs. This “solidarity across time” is at the foundation of most modern pension systems, for instance.

Some health systems are explicitly founded on social solidarity, others only implicitly so. However, there are health systems which partly or altogether eschew social solidarity as a defining principle and a determinant.

Health systems of the first type are usually universal, uniform, and comprehensive. They rely on tax revenues or a social insurance scheme or on a combination of both. Health systems of the second type depend on private insurance, are not universal, and are more diverse in the types of medical coverage offered (albeit this diversity comes with increased transaction costs).

Introducing means-testing (asking the rich to pay additional or higher user-fees, co-insurance, deductibles, or participation) does not affect social solidarity. On the contrary, taxing the rich to pay for the poor is the very essence of a solidary state. Similarly, introducing safety nets (such as voucher systems) is a solidary act. Whether such an approach is ideal, from the economic point of view is outside the scope of this paper.

III. Equity

There are three types of equity:

1. Equity of financing (affordability): can the poor, the unemployed, the homeless, the old, the young, the weak, the chronically sick, and the disenfranchised afford the healthcare offered? Are the expenses they have to incur catastrophic? Do certain expenditures (for instance user fees, or participation in the costs of medications) deter utilization? Do the payments reflect one’s income or wealth, are they “fair”?

2. Equity of utilization (accessibility) is comprised of two components:

(i) Vertical equity: Can everyone access healthcare services and facilities and make use of them easily and equitably (on the same terms and conditions, regardless of income)? This type of equity correlates with the progressivity of the health system (see chapter below.)

(ii) Horizontal equity is the extent to which people with identical incomes are treated similarly. This type of equity correlates with the redistributive aspects of the health system (see chapter below.)

3. Equity of quality: Is the level of quality healthcare provided in all regions of the country and in rural vs. urban settings the same?

Medical savings accounts adversely affect equity because they skew economic incentives and the allocation of healthcare resources towards the rich and men. Women and the poor cannot save as much and have greater healthcare needs.

User fees may actually increase equity under certain conditions: (1) That the income they generate is targeted at the poor and the chronically ill (2) That the poor and chronically ill are exempted from paying them and (3) That the level of funding from other sources (taxes, contributions) is not reduced.

Devolution of healthcare services may create inequity as rich municipalities are able to spend more on healthcare than poorer ones. The government should create an equalization fund or use general tax revenue to transfer resources from wealthier to more destitute regions. Pooling of funds among regional or competing funds guarantees more equity.

Regional health insurance funds increase inequity as they are faced with the same problems described under “Devolution” above: poorer regions cannot compete with richer regions on the purchasing and provision of healthcare.

Social health insurance and tax-based healthcare financing maintain the same level of equity of financing. Negative co-payments (no-claim bonuses); income caps (or ceilings) on contributions; the inclusion of dependants in the coverage at no additional cost; and the extent of cost-sharing determine how equitable and progressive the social insurance scheme is.

The introduction of private health insurers and voluntary health insurance to compete with the statutory health insurance fund or even merely to complement or supplement it would increase inequity especially with regards to women and low-income groups. Women are usually charged higher premiums though their incomes are often lower than men’s.

Risk-rated premiums decrease equity as they discriminate against the already ill and may deter them from seeking care. On the other hand, exemptions granted to specific population groups (and not based on income) increase inequity: the sick and the old may gain better access to quality healthcare than other, equally deserving beneficiaries.

Risk-adjusted (e.g., DRG) capitation systems enhance vertical equity.

Informal payments dramatically decrease equity because: (1) Access is restricted to those who can afford to pay (2) Payments terms and levels are arbitrary and changeable (3) Certain services and goods are rendered unaffordable (4) Public, more equitable services suffer (5) Lack of regulation creates variable quality of healthcare, fiscal irresponsibility, and lack of fairness.

IV. Progressivity and Redistribution

Though progressivity (and redistribution) are often conflated with equity, these are two separate issues. We can imagine a progressive system of health funding which is not equitable and can conceive of the reverse as well.

We say that healthcare funding is progressive when rich people pay more (as a proportion of their income) than poorer folk; the system is proportional when both rich and poor use up the same proportion of their disposable income to defray healthcare costs; it is regressive when poor people pay a higher portion of their income than the affluent to consume healthcare goods and services.

Progressivity largely determines whether there is a redistribution of resources from the rich to the government (not necessarily to the poorer segments of the population). How extensive and ubiquitous the redistribution from the government to the poor is depends on how involved the state is in the economy (in other words, it depends on the tax burden, the incidence of public spending, and on the absolute level of tax revenue, among other factors).

Tax-funded healthcare is progressive (assuming that most of the tax revenue is generated from direct taxes, not from consumption or indirect taxes which are regressive). It is less progressive than social health insurance when: (1) Indirect taxes constitute a major source of budget revenue and (2) The informal sector that does not pay taxes is large.

Earmarked (“sin”, or hypothecated) taxes on alcohol, tobacco, motor vehicles, and medicines are regressive (though their regressivity is intentional as they are intended to deter consumption).

Social health insurance is generally less progressive than a tax-based system because it does not tax income from interest, rent, capital gains, and non-wage types of income. This is especially true when there is an income ceiling (above which contributions are not levied); when there are no exemptions for low-income groups; and when the rates are uniform regardless of the size of the wages they are levied on.

Still, Social health insurance is more redistributive than private insurers: (1) It charges uniform or community rates (2) It insures dependants at no extra cost (3) The length and extent of healthcare goods and services provided is not related to previous or cumulative contributions (4) It caters to the needs of the old (inter-generational redistribution). Still, this type of redistribution has negative economic effects (which are outside the scope of this paper).

The introduction of private health insurers to compete with the statutory health insurance fund is neutral as far as progressivity goes. Only where private insurance has supplanted social insurance as the main source of funding did regressivity increase markedly. Risk-rated premiums, however, are regressive.

Medical savings accounts have no regressive or progressive effect as they do not redistribute income. All types of savings are neutral as far as progressivity or regressivity go.

User fees are highly regressive, regardless of any supplementary policy measures (such as exemptions). Only the introduction of means-testing can reduce regressivity.

Informal payments are highly regressive as the poor are asked to pay a high proportion of their income or assets (even when they are charged less than richer patients).

Tax deductibility of healthcare expenses is highly regressive (people with higher income tax rates receive a higher deduction).

V. Public Goods, Private Goods

Contrary to common misconceptions, public goods are not “goods provided by the public” (read: by the government). Public goods are sometimes supplied by the private sector and private goods – by the public sector. It is the contention of this essay that technology is blurring the distinction between these two types of goods and rendering it obsolete.

Pure public goods are characterized by:

I. Nonrivalry – the cost of extending the service or providing the good to another person is (close to) zero.

Most products are rivalrous (scarce) – zero sum games. Having been consumed, they are gone and are not available to others. Public goods, in contrast, are accessible to growing numbers of people without any additional marginal cost. This wide dispersion of benefits renders them unsuitable for private entrepreneurship. It is impossible to recapture the full returns they engender. As Samuelson observed, they are extreme forms of positive externalities (spillover effects).

II. Nonexcludability – it is impossible to exclude anyone from enjoying the benefits of a public good, or from defraying its costs (positive and negative externalities). Neither can anyone willingly exclude himself from their remit.

III. Externalities – public goods impose costs or benefits on others – individuals or firms – outside the marketplace and their effects are only partially reflected in prices and the market transactions. As Musgrave pointed out (1969), externalities are the other face of nonrivalry.

The usual examples for public goods are lighthouses – famously questioned by one Nobel Prize winner, Ronald Coase, and defended by another, Paul Samuelson – national defense, the GPS navigation system, vaccination programs, dams, and public art (such as park concerts).

It is evident that public goods are not necessarily provided or financed by public institutions. But governments frequently intervene to reverse market failures (i.e., when the markets fail to provide goods and services) or to reduce transaction costs so as to enhance consumption or supply and, thus, positive externalities. Governments, for instance, provide preventive care – a non-profitable healthcare niche – and subsidize education because they have an overall positive social effect.

Moreover, pure public goods do not exist, with the possible exception of national defense. Samuelson himself suggested [Samuelson, P.A - Diagrammatic Exposition of a Theory of Public Expenditure - Review of Economics and Statistics, 37 (1955), 350-56]:

“… Many – though not all – of the realistic cases of government activity can be fruitfully analyzed as some kind of a blend of these two extreme polar cases” (p. 350) – mixtures of private and public goods. (Education, the courts, public defense, highway programs, police and fire protection have an) “element of variability in the benefit that can go to one citizen at the expense of some other citizen” (p. 356).

From Pickhardt, Michael’s paper titled “Fifty Years after Samuelson’s ‘The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure’: What Are We Left With?”:

“… It seems that rivalry and nonrivalry are supposed to reflect this “element of variability” and hint at a continuum of goods that ranges from wholly rival to wholly nonrival ones. In particular, Musgrave (1969, p. 126 and pp. 134-35) writes:

‘The condition of non-rivalness in consumption (or, which is the same, the existence of beneficial consumption externalities) means that the same physical output (the fruits of the same factor input) is enjoyed by both A and B. This does not mean that the same subjective benefit must be derived, or even that precisely the same product quality is available to both. (…) Due to non-rivalness of consumption, individual demand curves are added vertically, rather than horizontally as in the case of private goods”.

“The preceding discussion has dealt with the case of a pure social good, i.e. a good the benefits of which are wholly non-rival. This approach has been subject to the criticism that this case does not exist, or, if at all, applies to defence only; and in fact most goods which give rise to private benefits also involve externalities in varying degrees and hence combine both social and private good characteristics’.

VI. Is Healthcare a Public Good?

Healthcare used to be a private good with positive externalities. Thanks to technology and government largesse it is no longer the case. It is being transformed into a nonpure public good.

In theory, all forms of healthcare are exclusionary, at least in principle. It is impossible to exclude a citizen from the benefits of his country’s national defense, or those of his county’s dam. It is perfectly feasible to exclude patients from access to healthcare. This caveat, however, equally applies to other goods universally recognized as public. It is possible to exclude certain members of the population from being educated, for instance – or from attending a public concert in the park.

Public goods require an initial investment by the user or consumer (the price-exclusion principle, demanded by Musgrave in 1959, does apply at times). One can hardly benefit from the weather forecasts without owning a radio or a television set – which would immediately tend to exclude the homeless and the rural poor in many countries. It is even

Consider the Alternatives:

Consider the … By Pierre … M. … Fueled Vehicles and … Vehicle Fuels Driving a car fueled by … other than gasoline or diesel fuel is no longer the

Consider the Alternatives: By Pierre Schexneider M. Ed.Alternative Fueled Vehicles and Alternative Vehicle Fuels Driving a car fueled by something other than gasoline or diesel fuel is no longer the stuff of science fiction. In addition to conventional gasoline and diesel fuel,Guest Posting reformulated – cleaner – gasoline and alternative fuels now are sold in many parts of the country. Alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity produce fewer tail pipe pollutants than conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Using them could improve our air quality. In 1992, Congress passed the Energy Policy Act to promote the use of alternative fuels. For example, the law requires owners of fleet vehicles to purchase a certain number of alternative fueled vehicles. Congress also directed the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to issue labeling requirements for alternative fuels and alternative fueled vehicles. Two FTC Rules – the Alternative Fuels and Vehicles (AFV) Rule and the Fuel Rating Rule – require fuel dispensers and alternative fueled vehicles to be labeled with information to help consumers make knowledgeable decisions when it comes to filling up or buying a vehicle. The AFV Rule applies to new and used alternative fueled vehicles that are sold to consumers or leased to consumers for a minimum of 120 days.This Article explains the labels you’ll see on alternative fueled vehicles and alternative fuel dispensers, and suggests several important factors to consider as you investigate the options. Alternative Fueled Vehicles:AFVs are vehicles that operate on alternative fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, electricity, and others designated by the U.S. Department of Energy. Some AFVs can run on conventional fuels, such as gasoline, and alternative fuels. They are called dual-fueled vehicles. The required labels must be placed in plain view on the surface of all new and used AFVs. The labels on new AFVs must include the vehicle’s cruising range as estimated by the manufacturer and its environmental impact, as well as general descriptive information. It’s important to know how many miles your new AFV will travel on a supply of fuel because, gallon for gallon, some AFVs don’t travel as far as gasoline-powered vehicles. The label’s description of the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) emission standard for the vehicle tells you to what extent the vehicle produces emissions. If a vehicle meets an EPA emissions standard, a box on the label will be marked and a caret (^) will be placed above the particular vehicle’s certification standard. The label shows the levels of emissions standards in a series of boxes that range from a “Tier l” vehicle – one with more emissions – to a “ZEV” – a zero emissions vehicle. The labels on new and used AFVs also advise consumers to consider the following items before buying or leasing an AFV. Fuel type. Ask what kind of fuel powers the vehicle. Operating costs. Fuel and maintenance costs for AFVs may differ from gasoline or diesel-fueled vehicles. Performance/convenience. Vehicles powered by different fuels vary in their ability to start when they are cold; their acceleration rates; the time it takes to completely refill the vehicle’s tank; and how they are refueled. Fuel availability. Find out whether refueling or recharging facilities are available in your area for the fuel the vehicle uses. Energy security/renewability. Consider where and how the fuel powering the vehicle is produced so you can anticipate long-term fuel availability at a reasonable price. These labels also must include additional sources of information from the federal government: The Department of Energy maintains a toll-free National Alternative Fuels Hotline to answer questions about alternative fuels, give information about the availability of alternative fuels in a particular area, and suggest more sources of information about alternative fuels and alternative fueled vehicles. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s toll-free hotline offers information about safety related automobile issues. In addition, because all vehicles affect the environment directly (tailpipe emissions) and indirectly (how the fuel is produced and brought to market), the labels on used AFVs advise consumers to compare the environmental costs of driving an AFV to driving a gasoline-powered vehicle. Alternative Fuels:Among the fuels covered by the Fuel Rating Rule and the Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Rule are methanol, ethanol, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gases, hydrogen, coal derived liquid fuels, and electricity. For example, methanol is an odorless, clear liquid produced from natural gas, coal, or biomass resources, such as crop and forest residues. It usually is sold as a blend of 85 percent methanol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol, a liquid produced from grain or agricultural waste, usually is sold as a blend of 85 percent denatured ethanol and 15 percent gasoline. The labels for these fuels are orange to distinguish them from gasoline octane labels, which are yellow. They must be placed on the fuel dispenser so that they are fully visible to consumers. Gasoline labels tell you the octane rating. Alternative fuel labels describe the fuel and its principal component(s). The rating for an alternative fuel – other than electricity – is the commonly used name of the fuel and the amount of its principal component, expressed as a minimum percentage. For electric vehicle fuel dispensing systems, the fuel rating is a common identifier – such as electricity – and the system’s kilowatt capacity, voltage, whether the voltage is alternating or direct current, amperage, and whether the system is conductive or inductive. Consider the Alternatives: Why consider switching to alternative fueled vehicles or alternative fuels? According to the Department of Energy, emissions from the 200 million cars and trucks on U.S. roads – mostly hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide – account for about 50 percent of all air pollution and more than 80 percent of urban air pollution. Driving alternative fueled vehicles could reduce the level of vehicle emissions, and choosing domestically produced alternative fuels – instead of imported oil – could help reduce the trade deficit, create jobs, and promote economic activity. At the same time, you should be aware that some alternative fuels have a lower energy content than gasoline. On a gallon for gallon basis, some do not allow consumers to travel as many miles as they could in a vehicle powered with gasoline or diesel fuel. In addition, an AFV may cost more than a comparable gasoline-powered vehicle. The good news is that you can help reduce pollution from vehicle emissions even if you don’t choose an AFV or alternative fuel. If you live or work in an area where air pollution is a continuing problem, you may be able to find reformulated gasoline at local service stations. Reformulated gasoline is conventional gasoline with added oxygen. It burns more cleanly than conventional gasoline. It is required in areas with the most serious levels of ozone air pollution and is being used by choice in others. For Information on gas saving tips visit: How to Save on Gas